ArtificialIntelligence technique that's been around since the 40s. Building systems inspired by the brain out of lots of little interconnected (normally) simple, similar units.
AKA "Connectionism" (OnConnectionism)
Fascinating bit of Meatball:FairProcess (scroll down) talks about neural-networks and the problems of them learning prejudiced correlations from human trainers.
Actual brains : http://www.napa.ufl.edu/2004news/braindish.htm
See also :