RossMayfield links to an article : http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_12/ciffolilli/ (on Wayback Machine, also here)
Andrea Cifftolilli's Phantom Authority case study on Wikipedia applies team and good club theory and transaction cost analysis to provide insight into how large scale wikis work.
AdinaLevin on Virtual Crimewatch : and http://alevin.com/weblog/archives/001477.html and ( (WarpLink) BroadCatching )
Of course, the notion of "phantom authority" using the people to police themselves isn't always so benign. For example : and http://www.thefeature.com/article?articleid=101025 and the AlwaysOnPanopticon
In fact, social norms and social oppression are the same mechanism. It isn't possible to decide which are the good uses vs. the bad uses simply from the "syntax" of the method of observation and flow of information.