The basic theory is that newer technologies that tend to displace older technologies also tend to be connected to and dependent on a wider network (compare computers being replaced by the DeviceSwarm)
This makes them look more efficient because they're actually pushing more of the work into that external network / system where it is less visible. The costs of the new technology's way of "doing business" are externalized and hidden ... among the poor or in the wider ecosystem.
Eventually, though, the hidden infrastructure can't cope with the externalities being generated and starts to collapse.
See also :
- JustInTime talks about how reifying risk allows it to be pushed onto those least able to cope with it
- AntiPatterns discusses patterns that can't contain the forces they create and allow them to leak out as externalities.
- IvanIllich's discussions of how large-scale modern systems (transport / medicine / schooling) go wrong (cost / benefit ends up with more cost than benefit)